Modeling Threats on a 64 kB Computerby Amit
We just submitted the camera-ready (i.e. final version) of a paper we wrote detailing the design and implementation of Tock for SOSP (Symposium on Operating Systems Principles), one of the premier publication venues for operating systems research. You can read the full paper. I think it’s written accessibly enough for most people who follow the project to get something out of it.
The paper goes through a fair bit of material: the goals of the OS, background on embedded systems, implementation details, etc. Some of this is covered in our documentation or it will make its way there eventually. But I wanted to highlight one particular topic we talk about in the paper: the threat model that Tock identifies and defends against.
If you’re building end-to-end embedded applications with Tock, understanding how you can model threats is important to building a secure system. But even if you don’t intend on using Tock, starting to think about threats holistically in embedded software is important. Maybe Tock’s model can help get us started.
Tock’s Threat Model
“Threat model” is a technical term for the kinds of attacks and threats a software (or really any) system might come under. The process of threat modeling involves identifying stakeholders (users, system builders, app developers, etc), their incentives, and their capabilities.
A threat model is most meaningful when we talk about a specific application: e.g., a Wordpress site with an administrator and a few writers, deployed in a third-party datacenter. Of course, Tock is not an application, but an operating system that’s used to build applications. Moreover, it targets a fairly diverse set of applications and deployment scenarios.
As a result, the goal of threat modeling in the Tock design is to set up building blocks for threat modeling for a particular application. In this sense, Tock departs pretty significantly from how embedded software is typically viewed.
Normally, embedded applications are built monolithically—that is, the hardware and software are designed together, and for the most part, all code in the system has the ability to completely control the hardware. Increasingly, that doesn’t fit how embedded applications are actually built.
Specifically, our threat model identifies four different stakeholders: board integrators, kernel component developers, application developers, and end-users. Each is responsible for different parts of a complete system and has different levels of trust in other stakeholders.
Board integrators combine a kernel with microcontroller-specific glue code, drivers for attached peripherals, and communication-protocol implementations. They decide which capabilities different kernel components have and probably design and build the hardware platform itself. For something like a smartwatch, these are the people who build and sell the watch.
Kernel component developers write most of the kernel functionality, such as peripheral drivers and communication protocols. In practice, the “board integrators”, won’t actually write most of the code. That’s just usually impractical these days. Instead, they’ll likely draw on the open source community or hardware vendors to write bits of the kernel. A vendor for an accelerometer peripheral may supply a step counting library tuned for their chip, or the open source community may develop a networking stack. In Tock’s threat model, we assume the source code for kernel components is available for the board integrators to audit before compiling into the kernel (this isn’t always true, but it probably should be). However, it does not assume that auditing will catch all bugs, and Tock limits the damage of a misbehaving kernel component. In particular, kernel component developers are not trusted to protect the secrecy and integrity of other system components. For example, they cannot violate certain shared-resource restrictions, like performing unauthorized accesses on peripherals, even if they are authorized to access another peripheral on the same bus.
Application developers build actual end-user functionality using services provided by the kernel. These are similar to the folks who write apps for phones or desktops. They might be third-party companies who sell software to end-users, they might be the end-users themselves, or they might be an open source community. So board integrators cannot generally audit application code. Even the developers may be completely unknown before deployment. Therefore we model applications as malicious: they might attempt to block system progress, to violate the secrecy or integrity of other applications or of the kernel, or to exhaust other shared resources such as memory and communication buses.
End-users are the people who actually use the device. The person who wears a smart watch is an end-user. Or the person maintaining a large sensor network. But also other people with physical or remote access. The border agent who has your USB security key for a couple hours is a sort of end-user. In general, end-users can install, replace or update applications and can interact with the system’s I/O ports in arbitrary ways. With the right kind of hardware support, the end-user may not be trusted to obey security policies attached to sensitive kernel data. For example, a security module on such a device could prevent a master encryption key from leaking to end-users.
Tock provides mechanisms for enabling and protecting against each of these stake-holders. Capsules in the kernel allow board integrators to pull in somewhat untrusted software by limiting what that software can do, and processes sandbox application code completely. Of course, mechanism is not policy, and its up to the board integrator—the folks building something with Tock—to use these mechanisms well.