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Walkthrough

From boot to blink

Let’s walk through an example of Tock running a notorious embedded application: blink. The app simply toggles an LED every 500ms. The code for the application itself is pretty simple:

#define LED 0

int main(void) {
    gpio_enable_output(LED);

    while(1) {
      gpio_toggle(LED);
      delay_ms(500);
    }
}

First we make sure the GPIO pin connected to the LED (which is connected to GPIO pin 0) is enabled as an output (line 4). Then, in an infinite loop, we toggle the LED and wait for 500ms.

Under the hood, the kernel initializes the chip, board and peripherals, protects most of the memory from the untrusted hands of the application, and sets up an asynchronous timer allowing it to go to sleep during the delay, transparently to the application. So let’s dive in and see how this all works.

The boot sequence

We start by going through the steps required to run the first line of application code above. This involves initializing the chip (clocks, controllers, etc), setting up the board (specifically initializing high-level drivers and providing them with access to hardware resources) and process initialization.

The ARM Cortex-M boot sequence is fairly minimal, especially since the CPU can execute code directly from embedded flash. The CPU expects a vector table at the very beginning of flash (literally address 0). The vector table contains function pointers to handlers for the various hardware interrupts and an initial stack pointer value:

ARM Cortex-M4 Vector Table

When the CPU powers on, it simply loads the first word into the stack pointer (SP) register, and the second word into the program counter (PC) register. From there we can run arbitrary C/Rust code.

In Tock, the chip-specific crate1 sets up the vector table by defining values in the .vectors2 section and relies on the board-specific crate3 to place that section appropriately using it’s linker script:

// Exposed by the linker script or board-specific crate
extern {
    // _estack is not really a function
    fn _estack();

    // Defined by platform
    fn reset_handler();
}

#[link_section=".vectors"]
#[no_mangle] // Ensures that the symbol is kept until the final binary
pub static BASE_VECTORS: [unsafe extern fn(); 256] = [
    /* Initial Stack */ _estack,
    /* Reset */         reset_handler,
    /* NMI */           unhandled_interrupt,
    /* Hard Fault */    hard_fault_handler,
    /* ... */
    /* SVC */           cortexm4::svc_handler,
    /* ... */
    /* SysTick */       systick_handler
    /* ... */
];

Since reset_handler is defined in the board-specific crate, that’s where we’ll start executing. However, the first thing it calls is the chip’s initialization function (e.g. sam4l::init()). Chip initialization copies the data section from flash to RAM, zeroes out the BSS section, and accounts for any chip errata.

We’re already running code written in Rust, but it’s fairly C-like Rust:

pub unsafe fn init() {
    // Relocate data segment.
    let mut pdest = &mut _srelocate as *mut u32;
    let pend = &mut _erelocate as *mut u32;
    let mut psrc = &_etext as *const u32;

    if psrc != pdest {
        while (pdest as *const u32) < pend {
            *pdest = *psrc;
            pdest = pdest.offset(1);
            psrc = psrc.offset(1);
        }
    }

    // Clear the zero segment (BSS)
    let pzero = &_ezero as *const u32;
    pdest = &mut _szero as *mut u32;

    while (pdest as *const u32) < pzero {
        *pdest = 0;
        pdest = pdest.offset(1);
    }
}

Next, reset_handler chooses a clock source for the CPU and initializes controllers and drivers. This code starts to look more “Rusty”. Isolation units in the Tock kernel, including drivers and virtualization layers, are called capsules. The design document goes into more detail about capsules but, importantly for us, capsules often have circular dependencies on each other, and those are set up in the board initialization.

Since our application uses a hardware alarm controller to sleep between blinking the LED, let’s look specifically at how that stack is setup in the kernel. The full-stack includes a hardware alarm driver (for the SAM4L’s AST controller), a virtual alarm capsule (which virtualizes the alarm for use by multiple capsules in the kernel) and a TimerDriver that exposes a virtualized timer to applications through a system call interface:

let ast = &sam4l::ast::AST;

let mux_alarm = static_init!(
    MuxAlarm<'static, sam4l::ast::Ast>,
    MuxAlarm::new(&sam4l::ast::AST),
    16);
ast.set_client(mux_alarm);

let virtual_alarm1 = static_init!(
    VirtualMuxAlarm<'static, sam4l::ast::Ast>,
    VirtualMuxAlarm::new(mux_alarm),
    24);
let timer = static_init!(
    TimerDriver<'static, VirtualMuxAlarm<'static, sam4l::ast::Ast>>,
    TimerDriver::new(virtual_alarm1, kernel::Container::create()),
    12);
virtual_alarm1.set_client(timer);

The static_init! macro creates and initializes variables in static memory, while getting around some restrictions on static initialization in Rust (e.g. constructors have to be const functions).

Above, we’re initializing a new component for each level of the stack in static memory, passing it a reference to the component below and also setting it as the client of the same component. This works because all of the components implement both the time::Alarm and time::Client traits and because capsules use immutable references to self.

Finally, the TimerDriver is stored in the board’s struct, which is passed to the kernel’s main function (the scheduler):

let hail = Hail {
    /* .. */
    timer: timer,
    /* .. */
};

/* ... */

kernel::main(&hail, &mut chip, load_processes(), &hail.ipc);

We also passed the result of load_processes() to kernel::main. This is a board-specific functions that reads process headers from flash, populates a list of structures to represent them, and initializes each of their data segments, global offset tables and stacks into memory.

The scheduler

kernel::main is the scheduler for Tock. It runs in a loop, where each iteration invokes events on capsules in response to hardware interrupts that have occurred, runs any processes that are either in the running state or have pending callbacks, and servicing systems calls from process by, again, invoking events on the appropriate capsules.

Capsule scheduler

Capsules invoked in response to either hardware interrupts (e.g. a hardware timer firing) or system calls.

The chip definition determines which capsules to call in response to interrupts in the service_pending_interrupts method4:

while let Some(interrupt) = iq.dequeue() {
    match interrupt {
        ASTALARM => ast::AST.handle_interrupt(),
        USART2 => usart::USART2.handle_interrupt(),
        /* ... */
    }
}

The board definition specifies which system call number is associated with a particular capsule in the with_driver method5:

fn with_driver<F, R>(&mut self, driver_num: usize, f: F) -> R
        where F: FnOnce(Option<&kernel::Driver>) -> R {

        match driver_num {
            0 => f(Some(self.console)),
            /* ... */
            3 => f(Some(self.timer)),
            /* ... */
        }
    }

Capsules that service system calls must conform to the Driver trait, which requires them to implement three methods (allow, command, and subscribe) corresponding to three of the five system calls processes can invoke. The other two (memop and yield) are handled directly by the scheduler.

Process scheduler

Processes in Tock run using a callback-based event system. Processes can request to be notified of certain events by drivers by passing a callback functions to driver through subscribe system calls. The process must later invoke the yield system call to tell the scheduler to schedule its next pending callback or block the process until one is available.

A callback is just an instruction address in the process and three arguments (passed via registers). When a process is first created, the kernel enqueues a default start callback pointing to the processes _start function which, by default, is defined in the libtock user library that the process links to statically, and simply sets up a stack and calls main.

So, in the case of our blink app, once the chip and board are initialized and our blink process is loaded, the first thing the scheduler does is invoke the start callback.

Deconstructing blink’s main function

Recall our simple blink app:

#define LED 0

int main(void) {
    gpio_enable_output(LED);

    while(1) {
      gpio_toggle(LED);
      delay_ms(500);
    }
}

The app is composed of calls to three library functions: gpio_enable_output, gpio_toggle and delay_ms. The first two are just wrappers around the command system call, which ask the GPIO driver to perform quick, synchronous operations.

delay_ms, on the other hand, is more complex and involves four of the five system calls. Let’s follow delay_ms end-to-end to get a picture of the interaction between processes, capsules, and the hardware works.

static void delay_cb(int unused0, int unused1, int unused2,
    void* userdata) {
  *((bool*)userdata) = true;
}

void delay_ms(uint32_t ms) {
  bool cond = false;
  
  // subscribe(3, 0, delay_cb, &cond);
  timer_subscribe(delay_cb, &cond);

  // command(3, 0, ms);
  timer_oneshot(ms);

  yield_for(&cond);
}

Note: timer_subscribe and timer_onshot are simple wrappers around subscribe and command. The code above shows the exact calls made in comments.

At a high level, delay_ms sets its callback for the timer driver to delay_cb (which simply sets a condition variable), instructs the timer driver to start a oneshot timer lasting ms milliseconds, then continuously invokes yield until the condition variable is set.

Subscribe

Subscribe takes a driver number, sub-driver number, a callback function pointers and an arbitrary user-data value to pass back to the callback as the last parameter.

When a process calls subscribe, a system call instruction is invoked which traps to the scheduler. The scheduler uses the driver number to figure out which driver the process wants to forward the subscribe request to. In this case, Hail maps driver number 3 to the timer driver. The scheduler wraps the function pointer and user-data into an opaque Callback type and passes it to the timer driver’s subscribe method.

Because Callback is opaque, the timer driver cannot access the function pointer or user-data directly, protecting the process from a buggy or malicious driver switching into arbitrary code in the process or corrupting (or leaking) the user-data value.

In the case of the timer driver, subscribe stores the Callback for later in a process specific data structure6:

fn subscribe(&self, _: usize, callback: Callback) -> isize {
    self.app_timer
        .enter(callback.app_id(), |td, _allocator| {
            td.callback = Some(callback);
            0
    })
    .unwrap_or(-1)
}

Command

Command takes a driver number, sub-driver number and an integer argument. In the case of timer_oneshot, the argument specifies in how many milliseconds in the future the timer should go off.

Similar to subscribe, when a process calls command, a system call instruction is invoked, trapping to the scheduler, which figures out which driver to forward the command to by looking up the driver number.

The scheduler the simply calls the driver’s command method with the sub-driver number, argument and the process identifier. The timer driver’s oneshot command stores both the current absolute time and the interval in the process-specific data structure. If the underlying alarm is already armed it checks if it needs to reset which is the next time in needs to fire (since this interval might come sooner than those set previously by other processes). Alternatively, it simply arms the alarm to fire when the interval expires.

fn command(&self, cmd: usize, ms: usize, caller_id: AppId) -> isize {
    self.app_timer.enter(caller_id, |td, _alloc| {
        match cmd_type {
            0 /* Oneshot */ => {
                td.t0 = self.alarm.now();
                td.interval = interval;

                // Repeat if cmd_type was 1
                td.repeating = false;
                if self.alarm.is_armed() {
                    self.reset_active_timer();
                    0
                } else {
                    self.alarm.set_alarm(td.t0.wrapping_add(td.interval));
                    0
                }
            },
            /* impls for repeating, stop ... */
            _ => -1
        }
    }).unwrap_or(-3)
}

Yield

Finally, yield tells the scheduler to block the process until a callback is ready to run. When that happens, the scheduler switches to the process and jumps to the callback’s function pointer, passing the user-data captured by the subscribe call as well as arguments from the driver. The callback runs in a new stack frame in the process, as though yield had called it directly. When it returns, it returns to the point where yield was called.

This allows us to write the yield_for function, which continues to yield until a particular callback has completed:

void yield_for(bool *cond) {
  while(!*cond) {
    yield();  
  }
}

Closing the loop with the hardware

At this point, the timer driver has set up a hardware timer to fire in 500 milliseconds and the blink app is blocked waiting for a callback to come in from the timer driver. Until there is a hardware event (i.e. the alarm firing), there is nothing for the system to do, so the scheduler puts the CPU to sleep at the end of the event loop iteration.

When the alarm fires, the CPU is woken back up and the scheduler continues where it left off. First, it calls service_pending_interrupts which asks the chip crate to check which hardware interrupt occured (in this case the ASTALARM). Recall that for the SAM4L, that method looks something like this:

match interrupt {
    /* ... */
    ASTALARM => ast::AST.handle_interrupt(),
    /* ... */

The chip sees that the alarm has fired and calls the ast’s handle_interrupt method (AST stands for “Asynchronous Timer” and is the name of the SAM4L’s alarm controller).

This method passes marks the interrupt handled and passes the event up to it’s client (the one we set up in the board initialization) through the time::Client trait’s fired method.

In our case, the direct client is a virtualization layer that allows multiple capsules to share the same hardware alarm. That, in turn, uses the same trait to call our timer driver.

The timer driver’s time::Client#fired method looks through the process specific data structures to see which process’s timers have expired—we know that there is as least one, but there may be more than one.

The timer driver then schedules each process’s Callback by calling it’s schedule method, which enqueues the Callback in the process’s callback queue (part of the process data structure created in load_processes).

Finally, the timer driver returns to the virtualization layer, which returns to the AST capsule, which returns to the scheduler. The scheduler now sees that the blink app’s process has a pending callback. It invokes the callback by switching to the process and jumping to the callback’s function pointer.

In our case, this function is the blink app’s delay_cb, which simply sets the condition variable yield_for is waiting on. yield for can return, and thus delay_ms returns. And we’re done!